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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 30-37

Clinical profile and outcome of leptospirosis at tertiary care centre in western Maharashtra


1 Department of Medicine, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Karad, Satara, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Microbiology, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Karad, Satara, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Harsha V Patil
Department of Microbiology, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Karad - 415 110, Dist. Satara, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2249-4855.104013

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Background: Leptospirosis is an emerging spirochetal zoonosis world wide. Leptospirosis is common zoonosis that is under reported and under diagnosed in India. The aim of this study was to study the clinical profile outcome and prognostic factors in human leptospirosis at tertiary care centre. Settings and Design: This was a retrospective study of leptospira positive patients who were admitted in tertiary care centre. The study was conducted in 2010, over a period of 6 month from July to December. Materials and Methods: All patients who presented with clinical features and tested IgM positive for leptospirosis were taken into the study and analyzed based on modified Faine's criteria. Results: Out of total 23 patients there were 21 males and 2 females, with mean age was 32 years. Maximum incidence of cases was found in month of July and August. Out of total 23 patients, 18 (78.26%) were farmers and 5 (21.73%) were laborers. Predominant complaints were fever, jaundice, myalgia, and headache. All 23 had positive results for IgM against leptospira. Liver function tests were deranged in 16 (69.56%) and renal functions were deranged in 12 (52.17%). Total 7 (30.43%) patients had Weil's syndrome and 7 (30.43%) had acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Total 7 (30.43%) patients had neuroleptospirosis, out of which 5 (21.73%) had aseptic meningitis, one had paraparesis secondary to lumbar radiculopathy and one had meningoencephalitis. Hyperkalemia was present in 6 (26.08%) patients, 7 (30.43%) patients had hypokalemia. Total 11 (47.82%) patients had metabolic acidosis (pH<7.3) on arterial blood gas analysis. Two (8.69%) patients had disseminated intravascular coagulation and 3 (13.04%) patients had thrombocytopenia. There was one death due to meningoencephalitis with multiorgan failure with overall case fatality rate of 4.34%. Total nine patients with oliguric renal failure were treated with daily dialysis and seven patients with ARDS were on artificial ventilator. Applying modified Faine's criteria, all 23 were positive for leptospirosis. All patients responded ceftriaxone. Conclusions: Leptospirosis was unexpectedly found to be positive in many of our patients who were having pyrexia with multiorgan dysfunction during the monsoons. Hepatic dysfunction, acute renal failure, ARDS, and neuroleptospirosis in decreasing frequency were the commonest complication. Daily dialysis, ventilatory support and intensive care management has definitely reduced morbidity and mortality associated with leptospirosis with multi-organ failure.


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